Degree of Fault Tolerance as a Comprehensive Parameter for Reliability Evaluation of Fault Tolerant Electric Traction Drives

Igor Bolvashenkov, Hans-Georg Herzog


This paper describes a new approach and methodology of quantitative assessment of the fault tolerance of electric power drive consisting of the multi-phase traction electric motor and multilevel electric inverter. It is suggested to consider such traction drive as a system with several degraded states. As a comprehensive parameter for evaluating of the fault tolerance, it is proposed to use the criterion of degree of the fault tolerance. For the approbation of the proposed method, the authors carried out research and obtained results of its practical application for evaluating the fault tolerance of the power train of an electrical helicopter.


reliability; degree of fault tolerance; multi-phase electric motor; multilevel inverter; traction vehicle drive

Full Text:



I. Bolvashenkov, J. Kammermann, S. Willerich and H.-G. Herzog, “Comparative Study of Reliability and Fault Tolerance of Multi-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for Safety-Critical Drive Trains”, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’16), 4 th to 6th May, Madrid, Spain, 2016, pp.1-6.

E. Levi, “Multiphase Electric Machines for Variable-Speed Applications”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol.55, No 5, 2008, pp.1893-1909.

M. Villani, M. Tursini, G. Fabri and L. Castellini, “Multi-Phase Permanent Magnet Motor Drives for Fault-Tolerant Applications”, In Proc. of IEEE International Electric Machines & Drives Conference (IEMDC), 5-18 May 2011, Niagara Falls, Canada, 2011, pp.1351-1356.

F. Scuiller, J.-F. Charpentier and E. Semail, “Multi-Star Multi-Phase Winding for a High Power Naval Propulsion Machine with Low Ripple Torques and High Fault Tolerant Ability”, In Proc. of the IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), 1-3 Sept. 2010, Lille, France, 2010, pp.1-5.

E. Semail, X. Kestelyn and F. Locment, “Fault Tolerant Multiphase Electrical Drives: the Impact of Design”, European Physical Journal - Applied Physics (EPJAP), Vol.43, Iss.2, 2008, pp.159-162.

P.G. Vigrianov, “Assessment the impact of different failures on the power characteristics of the low power 7-phase permanent magnet synchronous motors”, Moscow, Journal “Questions to Electromechanics”, Moscow, Vol.128, Iss.3, 2012, pp.3-7. (in Russian)

D. Fodorean, M. Ruba, L. Szabo and A. Miraoui, “Comparison of the main types of fault-tolerant electrical drives used in vehicle applications”, In Proc. of International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion, (SPEEDAM), June 11-13, Ischia, Italy, 2008, pp. 895-900.

O. Josefsson, T. Thiringer, S. Lundmark and H. Zelaya, “Evaluation and comparison of a two-level and a multilevel inverter for an EV using a modulized battery topology”, In Proc.of IEEE 38th Annual Conference on Industrial Electronics Society (IECON), Oct. 25-28, Montreal, Canada, 2012, pp. 2949-2956.

A. V. Brazhnikov and I. R. Belozyorov,”Prospects for Use of Multiphase Phase-Pole-Controlled AC Inverter Drives in Traction Systems”, European Journal of Natural History, Russia, Vol.2, 2011, pp.47-49.

B. Sarrazin, N. Rouger, J. P. Ferrieux and J. C. Crebier, “Cascaded Inverters for electric vehicles: Towards a better management of traction chain from the battery to the motor?”, In Proc. of IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, June 27-30, Gdansk, Poland, 2011, pp. 153-158.

S. Fazel, S. Bernet, D. Krug and K. Jalili, “Design and Comparison of 4-kV Neutral-Point-Clamped, Flying-Capacitor, and Series-Connected H-Bridge Multilevel Converters”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol.43, No.4, Jul.-Aug. 2007, pp. 1032-1040.

M. Malinowski, K. Gopakumar, J. Rodriguez and M. Perez, “A Survey on Cascaded Multilevel Inverters”, IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 57, No. 7, July 2010, pp. 2197-2206.

B. A. Welchko, T. A. Lipo, T. M. Jahns and S. E. Schulz, “Fault Tolerant Three-Phase AC Motor Drive Topologies: A Comparison of Features, Cost, and Limitations”, In: IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol.19, No 4, 2004, pp.1108-1116.

U. De Pra, D. Baert and H. Kuyken, “Analysis of the Degree of Reliability of a Redundant Modular Inverter Structure”, In Proc. of IEEE 12th International Telecommunications Energy Conference, 04-08 Oct. 1998, San Francisco, CA, 1998, pp.543- 548.

S. Krivoi, M. Hajder, P. Dymora and M. Mazurek, “The Matrix Method of Determining the Fault Tolerance Degree of a Computer Network Topology”, Sofia, Bulgaria, Publisher: ITHEA, Vol.13, No 3, 2006, pp.221-227.

A. Lisnianski, I. Frenkel and Y. Ding, “Multi-state System Reliability Analysis and Optimization for Engineers and Industrial Managers”, Berlin, New York, Springer, 2010, 393 p.

B. Natvig, “Multi-state systems reliability theory with applications”, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2011, 232 p.

I. Bolvashenkov and H.-G. Herzog, “Use of Stochastic Models for Operational Efficiency Analysis of Multi Power Source Traction Drives”, In Proc. of IEEE of International Symposium on Stochastic Models in Reliability Engineering, Life Science and Operations Management (SMRLO’16), 15-18 Feb. 2016, Beer Sheva, Israel, 2016, pp.124-130.

D. Hann,“A combined electromagnetic and thermal optimisation of an aerospace electric motor”, Int. Conference on Electrical Machines, ICEM, 6-8 Sept. 2010, Rome, Italy, 2010, pp.1-6.

M. M. Katzman, “Electrical machines“, Akademia, Moscow, Russia, 2001, 463 p. (in Russian)

S. Mahdavi, T. Herold and K. Hameyer, “Thermal modeling as a tool to determine the overload capability of electrical machines”, International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), 26-29 Oct. 2013, Busan, Korea, 2013, pp.454–458.

I. Bolvashenkov and H.-G. Herzog, “Approach to Predictive Evaluation of the Reliability of Electric Drive Train Based on a Stochastic Model”, In Proc. of IEEE 5th International Conference on Clean Electric Power (ICCEP’15), 16-18 June 2015, Taormina, Italy, 2015, pp.1-7.

E. Lauger, “Reliability in electrical and electronic components and systems”, North - Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 1982, 1171p.

N. P. Ermolin and I. P. Zerichin, “Zuverlässigkeit elektrischer Maschinen“, Berlin, Verlag Technik, 1981, 227 p. (in German)

A. H. Ranjbar, M. Kiani and B. Fahimi, “Dynamic Markov Model for Reliability Evaluation of Power Electronic Systems”, In Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Power Engineering, Energy and Electrical Drives (POWERENG), Malaga, Spain, May 2011, pp.1-6.

M. Molaei, H. Oraee and M. Fotuhi-Firuzabad, “Markov Model of Drive-Motor Systems for Reliability Calculation”, In Proc. of IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 9-13 July 2006, Montreal, Canada, pp.2286-2291.

T. Geyer and S. Schroder, “Reliability Considerations and Fault-Handling Strategies for Multi-MW Modular Drive Systems”, In: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol.46, No.6, Nov.-Dec. 2010, pp. 2442-2451.

K. S. Trivedi, “Probability and Statistics with Reliability, Queuing, and Computer Science Applications”, Second edition, Wiley, 2002, 848 p.

S. J. Bavuso, J. B. Dugan, K. S. Trivedi, E. M. Rothmann and W. E. Smith, “Analysis of Typical Fault-Tolerant Architectures using HARP”, In: IEEE Transactions on Reliability, Vol.R-36, Iss.2, June 1987, pp.176-185.

N. Muellner and O. Thee, “The Degree of Masking Fault Tolerance vs. Temporal Redundancy”, In: IEEE Workshops of International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (WAINA), 22-25 March 2011, Biopolis, Singapore, 2011, pp.21-28.

R. Ubar, S. Devadze, M. Jenihhin, J. Raik, G. Jervan and P. Ellervee, “Hierarchical Calculation of Malicious Faults for Evaluating the Fault-Tolerance”, In Proc. of 4th IEEE International Symposium on Electronic Design, Test & Applications (DELTA), 23-25 Jan. 2008, Hong Kong, 2008, pp.222-227.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Igor Bolvashenkov, Hans-Georg Herzog

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.